Live-in-relation i.e., living together is a course of action by which two individuals choose to live respectively on a long haul or permanent basis in a sincerely or potentially physically detainee relationship. The legitimateness of live-in in India is very gagged. With changing times and modernization, the social elements in India have gone through scarcely any sure changes. Be that as it may, certain social bits of insight anticipate acknowledgment and are seen from the perspective of Patriarchal profound quality; for ex., live-in relationships. In any case, the Indian judiciary has the opportunity and energy to time mediate and conceded reprieve to couples in a live-in, maintaining the individual right to freedom.

In Khushboo v/s Kanniammal[1] it was held that lawfully live-in track down establishes in Article 21 of the Indian Constitution. The right and opportunity of the decision to either wed or have a live-in relationship with one’s very own person will, hence, rise out of this basic fundamental right. In Badri Prasad v/s Director of Consolidation[2] – The Supreme Court legitimized 50 years of the relationship of two individuals. The bench expressed that since the couple had lived respectively for a long time, there was a solid assumption for wedlock. Furthermore, the law leaned toward the authenticity of their relationship.


 Velusamy vs Patchaiammal[3] – The court reaffirmed a specific test for assumption:-

  1. Showing to society as they are spouses.
  2. Being of lawful age.
  3. Otherwise qualified to go into a lawful marriage.
  4. Voluntarily lived together for long years.

It was additionally seen by a court as the right to ‘Palimony’ is to be perceived which is what might be compared to a divorce settlement in live-in yet restricted it to certified relations alone, not ones in which the accomplices lived respectively just for sexual reasons and ones where either accomplice was married to another person. Moreover in Indra Sharma vs VK Sharma[4] – the court set out specific more factors to fall live inside the articulation of’ relationship in the parameter of marriage’ in a particular length of the time of relationship, shared family, pooling of assets, and monetary courses of action, homegrown game plans, sexual connections, kids, friendship, socialization and aim and directs of gatherings.


While explaining upon the lawful sanctity stood to live in, the court alluded to Section 2(f) of Protections of women and Domestic Violence Act, 2005 characterizes the term domestic connections and females residing in life in have financial cures in it.

In S. Khushboo vs Kanniammal[5] – The Supreme court of India, interestingly gave legitimate acknowledgment to live in by ordering them as domestic connections safeguarded under the Protection of Women and Domestic viciousness act, 2005.

Segment 2(f) of this Act, characterizes a domestic relationship as a relationship in the ‘character of marriage’ between two individuals/grown-ups residing in a common family. Live in affecting a wedded individual fall inside the four corners of domestic connections under this Act.

In Malarkodi@ Malar vs the Chief Internal Audit Officer[6] – Madras High Court while embracing a wide translation of Section 2(f), the court recognized it to be expansive enough in its interpretation to include connections of live-in.

The Maharashtra Government in October 2008 supported a proposal recommending that a lady engaged in a live-in relationship for a sensible period’ ought to get a status of a spouse.

In Dhannulal vs Ganeshram[7] – The court asserted a women’s right to acquire property after the passing of her live-in accomplice to resolve a property debate. The relatives challenged that their grandparents had been living together with a person for 20 years. Further, they guaranteed that since she was not hitched to their grandparents, she was not qualified for acquiring property after his demise. The court arbitrated running against the norm and held that where the man and women were living respectively as a couple, the law will assume that they were living respectively in a substantial marriage.

In Payal Katara vs SP Nari Niketan Kandri Vihar Agra and Others[8] – Allahabad High Court precluded that ‘a woman of around 21 years old being a major, has the option to live with each other without marriage if both so wish’. The Supreme Court saw that a man and lady, assuming associated with a live-in relationship for a significant stretch, will be treated as a wedded couple and their youngster would be viewed as genuine and legal.

 In India, a live-in relationship between two people gets the approval of the society when they are legally married else the relationship is morally or legally not acceptable. But the Indian Judiciary doesn’t think like that.  If in a live-in relationship two adults are in a continuous cohabitation for a longer period who are not legally married to each other but share a common household will be presumed as a married couple and the above-mentioned rights will be applicable to the woman.

The term ‘palimony’ is ordinarily used to allude to upkeep for life. In India, Section 125 of CrPC relates to one side of upkeep. The National Commission for ladies prescribed to the Ministry of ladies and youngster Development on 30th June 2008 that the meaning of ‘spouse’ as depicted in Section 125 of CrPC, should incorporate women associated with a live-in relationship. The Malimath Committee had additionally recommended that the word ‘spouse’ under CrPC. be corrected to incorporate a ‘ladies living with a man would likewise be qualified for alimony.

In Badshah vs Urmile Badshah Godse[9] – Section 125 of CrPC, which got enacted to accomplish civil rights by supporting ‘destitute’ spouses, helpless minor kids, and weak guardians is presently appropriate to the poverty-stricken accomplice of life.

In Abhijit Bhikaseth Auto vs State of Maharashtra and others[10] – Supreme Court saw that it isn’t required for ladies to stringently layout the marriage, to guarantee maintenance under Section 125 CrPC.

In Chanmuniya vs Virendra Kushwaha[11] – The Supreme Court overruled the past decision, maintaining the right of a lady in a live-in relationship to guarantee maintenance under Section 125 of CrPC. The reasoning behind entitling a lady in a live-in relationship to such a right is to guarantee that a man doesn’t exploit legitimate escape clauses by partaking in the advantages of a de facto marriage without satisfying the obligations of that marriage.

Without regulations allowing the right to maintenance in life, Indian Courts have promptly conceded the right of palimony to accomplices who live respectively on various events. The right to ‘Palimony’ is likewise perceived in the United States, where certain states, including California, have Palimony regulations set up.

Author’s Name: Shreya Banerjee (Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan)

[1] 2010 5 SCC 600

[2] 1978 3 SCC 527

[3] 2010 10 SCC 469

[4] 2013 15 SCC 755

[5] 2010 5 SCC 600

[6] W.P. NO. 5706 of 2021

[7] 2015 12 SCC 301

[8] AIR 2001 ALL 254

[9] 2014 1 SCC 188

[10] 2009 CriLJ 889(Bom)

[11] 2011 1 SCC 141

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