When we got independence, our forefathers gave us some rights and provided us with some rules and regulations with common consensus in the name of the constitution. The objective was to create a superstructure that could govern the nation by installing the rights in the hands of people and whenever there is a threat to human rights, the constitution will safeguard the innocent.
In our Constitution, fundamental rights hold extraordinary significance as they guarantee basic civic liberties for the citizens. Notwithstanding, note that these rights will lose all their importance if a wronged individual doesn’t have any component to move toward the court for infringement of his basic rights. Subsequently, keeping in see this need, the forefathers of our Constitution give us the “right to constitutional remedy” under Articles 32 and 226 of the constitution. We can move toward the court for the issuance of a specific writ for the insurance of our privileges. In this article, we will investigate the importance of Articles 32 and 226. We will likewise dive profound into the significance and sort of writs that can be given by our hon’ble courts.
Presently the inquiry emerges that what is a writ? The significance of the word ‘Writs’ signifies order recorded as a hard copy for the sake of the Court. It is an authoritative record given by the court that arranges an individual or element to play out a particular demonstration or to stop playing out a particular activity or deed. Orders, warrants, bearings, summons, and so forth are all basically writs. A writ appeal is an application recorded under the watchful eye of the skilled Court mentioning it to give a particular writ.
There are five kinds of writ – habeas corpus, mandamus, quo-warranto, prohibition, and certiorari.
Who can file a writ petition? A writ request can be documented by any individual whose Fundamental Rights have been encroached by the State. Under a Public Interest Litigation, any open energetic individual may document a writ request in light of a legitimate concern for the overall population regardless of whether his own Fundamental Right has not encroached.
Where can a writ petition be filed? Under Article 32, a writ appeal can be documented in the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court can give a writ in particular if the candidate can demonstrate that his Fundamental Right has encroached. Under Article 226, a writ appeal can be documented under the steady gaze of any High Court inside whose purview the reason for activity emerges, either entirely or to some extent.
TYPES OF WRIT
- HABEAS CORPUS.
It is a real sense signifies “to have a body of”. This writ is utilized to deliver an individual who has been unlawfully confined or detained. By ideals of this writ, the Court coordinates the individual so confined to be brought before it to analyze the legitimateness of his detainment. Assuming the Court reasons that the detainment was unlawful, it guides the individual to be delivered right away.
Conditions of unlawful detention are: The confinement was not done as per the method set down. For example, the individual was not created before a Magistrate within 24 hours of his arrest. The individual was captured when he didn’t abuse any law. A capture was made under a law that is illegal.
This writ guarantees a quick legal audit of the supposed unlawful detainment of the detainee and prompt assurance of his entitlement to opportunity.
In the case of Sunil Batra v. Delhi Administration, an application was made to the Supreme Court through a letter composed by a co-convict on the abuse of the detainees. This letter was taken up by the Supreme Court and it gave the writ of habeas corpus expressing that this writ can not exclusively be utilized against illicit capture of the detainee yet additionally for his insurance against any abuse or cruel conduct by the keeping specialists.
In the case of Bhim Singh v State of J and K, Bhim Singh, a MLA of State of J and K was improperly captured and confined in the police headquarters and was kept from going to the State Legislative Assembly. The Court granted an amount of Rs.50,000 to the applicant as pay for the infringement of his Constitutional right of individual freedom under Art. 21.
A writ of mandamus, which in Latin signifies “we order, or once in a while “we command”, is the name of this right writ in the common law. It is given by a better court than force a lower court or an administration official to perform obligatory or absolutely ecclesiastical obligations accurately.
Mandamus is an order by the Supreme Court or High Courts to any open power to do or not to accomplish something in the idea of public obligation. It is given against the people or specialists who neglect to play out their compulsory obligations. For the motivation behind giving writ of mandamus, the official should have a pubic obligation and should neglect to perform such obligation. The candidate of this writ should likewise have the option to constrain the presence of some obligation cast upon the power.
In the case of Barada Kanta Adhikary v. The State of West Bengal, it was held that the writ of mandamus doesn’t lie against a private individual or private association since they are not dependent on a public obligation.
It signifies ‘what is your authority?’ It is an Order scrutinizing the authority of an individual holding a public office. It is given against the holder of a public office calling upon him to show with what authority he holds such office. The object of this writ is to control the leader’s activity in making arrangements to the public workplaces and furthermore to shield general society from usurpers of public workplaces.
In the case of Jamalpur Arya Samaj Sabha v Dr. D. Smash, the individual from the Working Committee of the Bihar Arya Samaj Sabha held the workplace for more than the recommended residency. The High Court would not issue the Writ of Quo Warranto on the ground that it was a private affiliation.
In the case of K.Bhima Raju v State of Andhra Pradesh, the Government pleader was named contrary to the principles. The solicitor documented a writ of Quo Warranto. The High Court suppressed the arrangement of Government Pleader on the ground that the arrangement was not made as per rules.
It signifies ‘to prevent. Each Court is relied upon to act inside the restrictions of their purview. A writ of preclusion is given to keep a substandard Court or Tribunal from surpassing its locale, which isn’t legitimately vested, or acting without a ward or acting contrary to the standards of common equity. The writ of Prohibition can be given against the Courts as well as against the specialists practicing legal or semi-legal capacities.
When can a Writ of Prohibition be granted? When the inferior Court or quasi-judicial authority exceeds its jurisdiction. When the inferior Court acts without lawful jurisdiction. When the inferior Court or quasi-judicial authority acts against the rule of natural justice. When there is an apparent error on the face of the judicial record.
When is the Writ of Prohibition not issued? At the point when the Court acts inside its legitimate ward. At the point when the Court notices standards of normal equity.
It intends ‘to certify’. Certiorari is a curative writ. It is an Order by the Supreme Court or the High Courts to a substandard Court to eliminate a suit from such second rate Court and mediate upon the legitimacy of the procedures or to suppress the Orders of the sub-par Court. Writ of Certiorari can be given against any second rate Courts as well as against a body practicing legal or semi-legal capacities. This writ is given under the administrative or unique ward and not under the redrafting purview. Any individual whose central right is abused can apply for a Writ of Certiorari.
When a writ of Certiorari can’t be allowed? To eliminate pastoral demonstrations. To eliminate or drop leader acts. To pronounce an Act as unlawful or void.
In the case of Rafiq Khan v State of UP, the Magistrate kept up the conviction of the charge as passed by a Panchayat Adalat which is no1 approved under Section 85 of the U. P. Panchayat Raj Act, 1947. Henceforth, the High Court subdued the conviction by a writ of certiorari.
The privilege to protected cure is a piece of our fundamental construction and it can never be repealed. Our Constitution has conceded the preeminent ability to give the writ to the Supreme Court and the High court according to Articles 32 and 226 individually.
Author’s Name: Harshita Swami (Guwahati University)
 (1978) 4 SCC 409
 AIR 1986 SC 494
 AIR 1963 Cal 161
 AIR 1954 Pat. 297
 AIR 1981 AP 24
 AIR 1954 All 3