Incorporating an organization is a complicated process with numerous requirements and formalities. There are several stages to it, including firm promotion, the conception of the fundamental principle initiative to start a company, practical design of the business opportunities available, and incorporation, i.e. the state company that the founder plans to apply to the registrar has a registered office and capital of the plan to be established. An open corporation might increase the necessary funds by issuing securities to the general population. At each stage of company formation, there are many documents that must be completed to form the company. The Memorandum and Articles of Incorporation serve as legal documents relating to the establishment of a business and its obligations. Articles of Affiliation is an abbreviation for MoA, the company document containing all the important details of the company. This refers to the report that contains all the policies and guidelines created by the business.


 It is intended to be the company’s primary document. This document refers to the business’s personality. The MoA describes the company’s power, purpose, as well as activities. A business may carry out the activities described in the MOA. This indicates the limits that the company’s actions must not surpass. Therefore, prior to proceeding with a constrained liability business, it is important to understand the precise structure of an organization as well as its restrictions. A line that a firm may cross-operate that outlines the company’s powers and purposes. For a limited liability company, the MoA shall be signed by at least two of its participants. However, for a public company, the MoA will be signed by her seven members.

According to Section 2 (56) of the Companies Act 2013, “Agreement of Formation” (MoA) refers to the initial association memorandum as registered by the company or the memorandum of association as revised under the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.


The guidelines for the domestic processes of the corporation that operates it are outlined in the Association’s Articles of Association. Additionally, it explains the corporate goals as well as how the company performs its functions. Responsibilities include creating financial records and managing financial records. Simply put, AoA is an organization’s user manual, laying out objectives and strategies for achieving long-term and short-term goals. AOA’s primary focus is to provide readers with information about the methods organizations use to achieve their objectives which are regular, weekly, quarterly, and annual. The formal title of the firm, its location, its operating procedures, incorporation, shareholders’ meetings, and the rules governing the business capital. According to Article 2(5) of the Companies Act 2013, “Section” refers to the company’s initial Articles of Incorporation and any subsequent amendments that comply with the provisions of Article 5 r/w of the Companies Act, 2013 providing guidelines and rules for the business to be managed.


Comparative Framework




A record containing all the basic information necessary to form an organization.

A document that contains all the company’s controlling laws as well as policies.


The goal of MoA is to define the organization and the goals and conditions of its formation.

AoA’s goal is to specify the laws and guidelines regulating the domestic controls an organization to achieve its objectives.



is subject to company law.

MoA comes before AoA.



An MoA explains organizational goals, mandates, and boundaries.

The AoA defines the powers, rights, duties, and responsibilities attached to employees of the business.


MoA links groups with individuals.

Organizational members can interact with the business directly through AoA.

Retrospective Effect

An institution cannot change its MoA.

An organization can interchange its AoA.


Despite the type or size of the business, a MoA is a requirement.

necessary to private businesses. A private limited corporation can, nevertheless, implement Table F of the 2013 Companies Act.


An       MoA is made compulsory.

Completing the           AoA is not mandatory.


Upon the adoption of such a Special Resolution there at the company’s AGM.

It also requires prior approval from the Company

Law Commission and the central government.

An organization can amend its Articles of Incorporation upon passage of a Special

Resolution at the company’s annual general meeting.


The MoA comprised six articles.

AoA is created by the selected institution.


 The following are the key distinctions between an association agreement and a memorandum of affiliation: 

  1. An (MoA) is an article containing the essential conditions for the incorporation of a business. On the opposite, the (AoA) contains the guidelines and standards for the organization’s administration.
  2. The (MoA) is indeed a subsidiary of the Companies Act, (AoA), contrasted with, subject to both the law and the MoA.
  3. In the event of any conflict between the MoAs regarding the terms, the MoA will prevail over the conditions of (the AoA),
  4. The Memorandum of Association (MoA) details the purpose and powers of the business. Alternatively, (AoA) has information about company standards and regulations.
  5. The Memorandum of Association (MoA) contains six basic articles. Conversely, an Articles of Association (AoA), is created based on the business’s judgment.
  6. The Memorandum of Association (MoA) specifies interactions between the company and third parties. In contrast, an Articles of Association (AoA) regulates interactions between a company and the members to which it provides services. It also defines interactions between members.
  7. As to scope, any activity outside the scope of the Memorandum of Association (MoA) is void. In contrast, activities that take place beyond the purview of the  (AoA)  could be endorsed by shareholder vote.


The MoA and the AoA are mainly two publications that an organization. These two documents assist the business with a range of issues. Additionally, it aids in the efficient administration and operation of the business. For this and all reasons, companies are obliged to draft memorandums and articles.

Author’s Name: Stuti Kushwaha (University of Lucknow, Lucknow)

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