India is the biggest Democracy in the world with a populace of 1.4 billion people in which the percentage of women constitutes around 48.4%in 2021. But when the question arises of the women representatives we are far behind the other democratic countries. So now the question emerges are parliamentary reservations for women really necessary? This question has been debated in India since independence; Recently a political party named Bharat Rashtra Samithi (BRS) after a long hunger strike in New Delhi demanded Women’s Reservation bill.
When we explored the Indian National Movement which is subjected to women’s political reservations. In 1931, Politicians like Sarojini Naidu and Begum Shah Nawaz issued a letter to the British Prime Minister denouncing the situation of women in the new constitution. According to them, accepting preferential treatment would go against the spirit of Indian women’s unrelenting desire for complete political equality. The Indian constitution’s 73rd and 74th amendments were finally passed in 1992 after much debate and disagreement, and they declared that;
- All state governments should provide one-third of the seats in Panchayati Raj Institutions to women, as well as one-third of the chair positions at all Panchayati Raj Institution levels and in Urban Local Bodies, proportionately.
- One-third is reserved for Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe women.
WHAT IS THE WOMEN’S RESERVATION BILL?
Women Reservation Bill (The Constitution (108th Amendment) Bill, 2008), seeks to reserve one-third of all seats for women in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assembly.
FOREGROUND OF THE BILL
- In the Lok Sabha and Legislative assembles, women from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes will be given one-third of the total number of seats designated for those categories.
- Reserved seats may be distributed to various constituencies in the state or union territory through rotation.
- Seats reserved for women will no longer be available for 15 years following the start of this Amendment Act.
First introduced into the House of Commons as the 81st Amendment Act under the leadership of Deve Gowda in September 1996, it was rejected by Congress and submitted to the Joint Congressional Committee, which submitted its report to the House of Commons in December 1996. entrusted. Locomotive mackerel off at the time of dissolution. The government reinstated the measure in the 12th Congress, but it expired without success. This law was introduced in the Rajay sabha in 2008 and passed on 9 March 2010 under Manmohan’s Singh leadership.
WHAT JUSTIFIES THIS BILL’S NEED?
According to the Global Gender Gap Report 2022, India ranks 48th out of 146 countries in the Political Empowerment (Percentage of Women in Parliament and Ministerial Positions) dimension. The rise in the number of women in politics will lead to a greater focus on issues affecting women, such as violence against women, sexual harassment, and other crimes. The first steps to ensure their political accountability are to encourage good administration and to increase the representation of women in leadership.
By challenging patriarchal structures, reservations for women in Panchayati raj institutions had good effects. For instance, despite being highly educated, Rajasthani native Chhavi Rajawat abandoned her high-profile career in order to improve the situation in her hometown. The leadership of women in politics is doing wonderful work in municipal bodies and other sectors despite the obstacles they encounter.
REASONS IN SUPPORT OF THE BILL
- Dismantling Patriarchy: Since political parties are inherently patriarchal, the bill argues that affirmative action is urgently needed for improving women’s conditions.
- Insufficient representation: There is a percentage of women who are underrepresented in politics and parliament, according to several surveys. Women’s reservation of rights law will ensure gender equality and participation by being introduced.
REASONS VOTED AGAINST THE BILL
- Absence of uniformity: Caste-based reservations cannot be created for women, according to arguments raised due to the homogeneity of the caste group.
- Dissolution of Families: Because of the widespread practice of man chauvinism in politics, some people believed that politics could ruin the ideals of the family.
WHAT CAN BE DONE TO IMPROVE INDIA’S REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN IN POLITICS?
Women’s representation in politics has been a topic of discussion since the country’s independence and prior administrations have carried out a number of reforms. Despite the fact that many progressive constitutions grant women equal rights. They have struggled to have an impact in a variety of areas, including politics. But here are some steps you can do to advance women’s representation in politics;
- Reservation of seats: the holding of seats apart in legislative and local assemblies. There have been numerous instances in India’s rural areas where women have received seats and gone on to perform great work in their fields.
- Raising Public Awareness and Education: It’s crucial to educate women about their rights and the value of being involved in politics. Educational and advocacy programs can help with this problem.
The idea behind the women’s reservation charge has developed. It is crucial that political specialists pass this degree so that they can bring almost an extraordinary advancement within the status and position of ladies in Indian society. Our MPs and law creators must take the activity to see that this charge is passed into law. It’ll allow ladies from distinctive castes, classes, and, segments a chance to achieve control and utilize it for the great of Indian society. It is vital that this charge does not become merely a bit of paper. It should end up an enactment that is executed so that the security, security, and welfare of ladies in India are secured.
Author’s Name: Pratiksha Mishra (Army Institute of Law, Mohali)
 World Bank, Population, female(% of total population)-India(2021), https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.pop.TOTL.FE.ZS?locations=IN, accessed on 23 March 2023
 Women’s Reservation Bill ( The Constitution (108th Amendment) Bill, 2008,PRS Legislative Research, https://prsindia.org/billtrack/womens-reservation-bill-the-constitution-108th-amendment-bill-2008-45 , accessed on 23 March, 2023
 Reservation for women in politics, Sanskriti IAS (20 March 2023), https://www.sanskritiias.com/current-affairs/reservation-for-women-in-politics ,accessed on 23 March 2023
 8 Women Sanpanch who Are Leading By Examples And Turning The Fortunes Of Indian Villages(25 April 2018),Mainder Dabas, https://www.indiatimes.com/news/india/meet-these-eight-women-sanpaches-who-defied-patriarchy-and-are-doing-greaat-work-for-their-villages-344199.html ,accessed on 23 March 2023